Discussion 11.1.1

Best Practice Renaming Images

When a digital camera takes an image, the storage system of the camera automatically assigns a name to the image. Unfortunately, this name is a long series of numbers and letters. This makes it difficult for a photographer to remember what is the subject matter of the individual image. Locating a single image for reproduction or uploading to a website becomes a long task of searching through the images taken. If a photographer has taken several dozen to hundreds of images of an event, the task becomes daunting.

The best practice for renaming an image or series of images is to create a two letter identifier of the event and  a series of numbers that range the event. If I took a series of photographs at Charlotte Motor Speedway, I would rename my images CM01, CM02, CM03, and so on. If I have set the time and date on the camera, I would have the dates and times available in storage to help narrow the event photograph even further using the time sequence within the event.

Assignment 10.1.1

illuminated manuscript


When communicating through the written word, books and other written objects were created and copied by hand. A broad-tipped nib pen was used to “paint” ink onto paper with each stroke constructing a letter. Each stroke would move up, down, diagonally, or in curves.

contrastlow contrast


The stroke of the type has transition points which can be thin or thick. This is the contrast within the type. The contrast itself is either high contrast, as in the Bembo and Baskerville type or low contrast, as in the Softly Serif Font. High contrast has multiple transitions which provide easy reading for viewers. Low contrast has very little transition.

stress example typeface


Stress is the angle of the occurrence of the transition of the stroke as it goes from thick to thin and vise-versa. The stroke can have a vertical, diagonal, slight diagonal, or no stress.

weight regular bold light

Weight (Regular, Boldface, Light)

The weight of typeface is the width of the stroke and visual appearance. Boldface is wider and heavier in appearance than regular typeface. Light typeface is thinner in appearance and visually appears lighter. Regular weight typeface is the middle ground between boldface and light.posture roman oblique italic

Posture (Roman, Oblique, Italic)

Posture is the positioning of the typeface. Roman is an upright typeface. Oblique is a slanted typeface that is based on roman positioned type. Italic is also a slanted typeface-but it’s slant is equivalent to cursive handwriting.


Proportions and Letterform Parts

The basic characteristics of type and where the type “lands” on a line helps a designer determine the style of type that would be used for a project. The “landing point” is called the baseline and the bottom edge of each type would be placed here. The top of an uppercase letter is lined up at the capline. The top of the lowercase letter would line up at the meanline. The size of the typeface itself is the x-height. Counter is the enclosed parts of the type and would be viewed in “o” and “q”. Descender is the part of the type that descends past the baseline as in the lowercase “j” or “p”. Monospaced is type that is spaced evenly and sits close to the next letter. Monospace is rarely used because it is difficult to read except in coding.

serif v sans serif

Serif and Sans-Serif

Serifs are small decorative marks that are added to the end of a main character stroke. Sans-Serif does not have the extra stroke. The issue of readability in print and electronic display has created dilemmas in design as the serif does not work well in legibility as the type becomes smaller on electronic displays. Serif is aesthetically pleasing in print media.

decorative type

Decorative Typeface

Decorative typefaces are usually robust types that are used as a decorative element for a design rather than for reading, adding mood, emotion, or attitude. Having more of a “personality” then regular typesfaces, decorative type is used sparingly as they can draw attention from the main element of a design.


Script Fonts

Script fonts emulate cursive handwriting and calligraphy and are used by printers for certificates of achievement and invitations.

font symbols and specials

Symbol Typefaces and Special Characters

Symbol typefaces and special characters are types and fonts that are needed occasionally for special designs. Accented letters, copyright marks, and currency symbols are some of the characters that can be used with some of the font families. Special Characters such as Wingding, Zapf Dingbats are ornamental characters that can be used within a design but they do not blend well with the traditional fonts.

Assignment 10.1.2

True fonts are font types that were developed by type designers to serve particular emphasis to text. These fonts add visual energy to text through the use of weight, angle, and width. Font families use the basic styles of roman or upright, bold, italic, and bold italic. The font designer, plans each letter to be able to interact with another letter is a visually pleasing manner.

Faux fonts are computer-generated fonts. A bold font is usually a mathematically-thickened version of the regular type instead of the planned bold which a type designer creates independent of the regular fonts. The faux font doesn’t have the visual impact of true fonts when viewing text created from faux fonts.

Assignment 10.1.3

Font color is important because it allows the text to stand out from the background. If a dark font is combined with a dark background, the font disappears into the background. The same issue occurs when light fonts are used with light backgrounds.

Competing colors also make the text illegible. Combining colors, such as red and green, creates the illusion of the text vibrating on the surface. This causes eyestrain and people would not finish reading the text. Some people (especially men) are color-blind, so would be unable to see particular ranges of red, green and orange. A color-blind individual would perceive the red text on a black background as black.

Discussion 10.1.1

10 Bad-Kerning

This is my example of bad kerning. Both the first and last names are broken into “Da Vid W Ard”.

Kerning uses selection to vary space between the letters, accounting for shape and permitting letters to extend into the virtual area surrounding the letter (block). The text becomes more readable when the distance between letters are well-spaced.

Leading is the space between lines of text. The distance is measured between the baseline of one row and the baseline of the next. Leading allows readers to advance their eyes from one line to the next line when studying text.

Assignment 9.2.1

A) What is a Graphic?

Graphic is a hand-drawn or computer-generated image that can be shown on a surface such as a wall, a piece of paper, computer screen. Graphics can include web buttons, favicons, icons, fonts, drawings, symbols, line art, etc.

B) What is Compression?

Compression is involves storing graphic (and other media) files in a format that allows more efficient storage of the data. Graphic files that are uncompressed use a large amount of hard drive space. In the early days of computing, data storage space was of premium, so formats were developed to compress the graphic files into a smaller scale.

There are two types of compression: lossless which stores the data of the image efficiently, without losing data and lossy, which in compressing the data, actually removes data in order to reduce file size.

C) What is a raster image?

A raster image is an image that is a mathematically
-based image created by picture elements9.2 raster image
(pixels), shaped like squares, equal in size. These
squares come in single-color values and are valued at twenty-four (24) bits of binary data. The image is assigned a total amount of pixels and when the image is reduced or upscaled, the pixels are compressed or expanded. While compression isn’t as noticeable, upscaling a raster image results in damaging the color and detail by softening or fading the color and reducing the detail.

D) What is a vector image?

A vector image is a non-mathematically based image created by areas using “paths”. The image is broken into geometric areas defined by points, lines, curves, and shapes. Vectors are not as detailed image-wise as raster images and can withstand both compression and upscaling as there are no pixel elements within the image to be disturbed.

Discussion 8.1.2

What are Cascading Style Sheets?

Cascading Style Sheets controls the appearance of the website. The sheets control fonts, background colors, and determine the hierarchy of rules for laying out the content between the designer, the browser and the Internet.